Roman Road Construction

The Romans used science to some extent in building their roads. At the zenith of their power they had constructed about 85,000 kilometers of them. These roads connected the capital Rome with the boundaries of the vast empire. Rome was like a hub with 29 military roads going out in all directions. The most famous was the via Appia. Most archeologists think that the Romans learned the ability to construct roads particularly from the Etruscans in the North of Italy. Though also other cultures like the Phoenician and Egyptian ones must have contributed historically.

It is very noteworthy that Roman roads were made in straight lines from point to point. Lakes, swamps, ravines and even mountains were subdued. Even modern engineers admire them because of their courageous design.

The via Appia was started in 312 B.C. and consisted of one and one half meters of different materials. The deepest layer was made of sand or a kind of lime. On top of that they spread one half meter of flat stones. Then about 20 centimeters of smaller stones mixed with mortar. Then about 30 centimeters of pebbles and coarse sand mixed with hot lime. The top layer consisted of 15 centimeters of lava that looked like flints. People would imitate this practice the next 2000 years!

Roman public transport was divided into a fast and slow service, the freight service. This apart from private travel and transport. The two wheeled chariot drawn by two or four horses and the comparable cart for the country side, were the usual means of transport. The raeda (a Gallic word for a four wheeled wagon) was the precursor of the stagecoach. There was also a freight raeda drawn by eight horses during summer and ten during winter. It was not allowed to load it with more than a 1000 Roman pounds (about 330 kilos). Speed of transport varied from about 20 kilometers a day for freight service to 120 kilometers for the fastest postal service

In the Roman Empire, for the first time in history, a completely integrated system of roads was constructed and of cities intricately connected. The most important goal of these roads was the facilitation of movement for the military apparatus and for carrying out the administration. Transport of wheat and other big loads was almost always accomplished with simple boats, since transportation over land was too cumbersome and therefore too expensive.

The chariot was fast enough to guarantee a relatively quick form of communication, if at least a reasonably smooth surface could be realized. The Romans accomplished this through making the lower layer of the road dry and then by the laying of flat stones. Only relatively few roads were wide enough for two transport wagons. In fact many of them were quite narrow even for a single wagon. However a relatively great number of roads were capable of accommodating two chariots next to each other.

Another reason why the roads were mainly suitable for travel on foot and for horses by themselves, was that the Romans were not particularly successful in inventing a useful turning system for the wheels. They shared the use of oxen with other southern cultures and knew how to employ their strength. For this they availed themselves first of the horn yoke and subsequently of the shoulder yoke.

But they developed no technique for wagons with two or four wheels. Apparently the wheels were simply fixed to the axles. This meant that in a curve the other wheel was dragged along. Moreover, so historians think, the axles were stuck to the frame so that, when steering, the wagon was forced into the right direction rather than properly turned. Only the Celts had discovered how to make a proper swivel axle for the front. But the Romans did have greased iron axle bushings.

Transportation In Ancient Rome

The first and most simple vehicle found in Rome, was the plaustrum. It was little more than a flat board carried by four wheels. The wheels were fixed to the axle in a stiff manner and the axle itself was also fabricated tightly to the cart. This made steering of the wagon a cumbersome business and meant a very low efficiency. These problems and the fact that no supple wagon had been invented to bind the animals in the front-only the Celts had invented a balanced harness to pull with-made freight over land costly and time-consuming.

The most impressive skill in Roman transportation was the so-called cursus publicus (something like ‘public race course’). This postal service was started by state couriers bringing information and diplomatic instructions into the far reaches of the empire. This developed relatively quickly into the organization of postal diligences that connected the various provinces with each other. These were not really public postal services as they were meant for people employed by the emperor and for the rich and powerful.

The cursus publicus was strictly regulated as far as size and capacity of its vehicles was concerned. Also it was precisely specified who was allowed to drive them, for what purpose and who was responsible for their maintenance. Because of the high cost of constructing and maintaining roads, transportation was managed in accordance with tight stipulations and great care was taken that a relative light maximum weight was allowed for the different modes of transport.

When the Roman empire lost its vitality, the cursus publicus became victim of nepotism and misuse. With the demise of Roman central power the excellent qualities of the system disappeared. Only in modern times the cursus publicus would be matched.

In general transportation was carried out by ancient customs. Sail boats were given a smooth skin, instead of riveting, and a fully developed keel with front and stern. The ancient Greeks used a square or oblong sail to catch the wind and in case of headwind they employed one or two rows of oarsmen to make headway. The Greeks were the first, as far as we know, to construct a special kind of battle ship with a ram at the front. Also they had freight ships without rowers and these, of course, were totally dependent on the wind. These developments were completed in the time of classical Greece. The Romans adopted both these forms without making any changes.

The Romans devoted much more attention to their roads than to transportation by sea. They worked out a remarkable network with carefully planned roads, both as far as the position as the construction were concerned. The road network was stretched out far and wide throughout all the provinces of the empire. Over these roads the legions marched to wherever there was a crisis. The roads also served for the development of trade, but their primary function always remained the maintenance of the imperial dominion.

At the zenith of Roman power trade was connected over land to the cultures of Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor and even China and India. But the system of transportation depended on the Roman, Chinese and Mauritanian empires. When these great powers collapsed, the trade routes became ways of invasion for foreign hostile armies. Almost everywhere the road networks became dilapidated for centuries. Freight transport was substituted by troupes of beasts of burden that were able to travel those ancient roads and that were sufficient to carry the lesser stream of goods. It would last till the twelfth century before the situation was improved.

Super Specialty Hospitals

Super specialty hospitals are the hospitals that are exclusively and primarily engaged in the treatment and care of patients that suffer from a very specific kind of illness. This is the place where the patients can be able to get some specialized services.

The healthcare industry has seen a very significant and great change, especially in the last decade and change has actually been inevitable. This is a change that has been coming for a long time and the dramatic changes have started to take effect and get experienced today. These hospitals have experienced a very prolific growth. These are hospitals that have been greatly accredited and there are yet others in waiting for recognition from different bodies showing that there are many needs arising in the health sector.

Who can benefit from the super specialty hospitals?

Everyone can actually benefit from the services that such hospitals offer as long as they have a medical need. All age groups can be able to access such services regardless of whether they are children, or youths, adults and seniors.

One thing that you may note about the hospitals is the fact that it can be a bit high in terms of price. Most people accessing the services have a rather good financial standing and this means the less fortunate are a bit at a disadvantage. This means that you may have to take time to compare the prices so as to get quality health care. The rise in demand and the rise in the super specialty hospitals being set up, competition may actually bring the prices down.

Most jurisdictions require that hospitals be assessed and tested so as to ensure that they always offer high quality healthcare services. This is because of the rise in demand and the fact that some countries are actually enjoying international recognition and getting patients from all over the world.

When you are selecting a hospital, make sure that you take time to check the accreditation that it has as well as the certification and qualifications of the doctors within.

Areas that super specialty hospital cover

There are many areas that are covered by the super specialty hospitals. You need to ensure that your area of need has been covered before seeking services at any hospital. You can access pediatrics, cardiology, orthopedics, gynecology, Nephrology, urology, neurology, cancer and so many others. These areas affect many humans today and there is a growing need to have treatment from only qualified personnel.

Most of the multispecialty hospitals are well equipped and with enough staff to handle emergency services. A hospital needs to be able to respond to all emergencies in a timely and direct manner to avert any negative outcome. There is a necessity to instill the patients with trust by giving the highest standards in their services.

Other areas that most of the multispecialty hospitals cover include surgery, ICU, pharmacy, lab services and so on. It is important to note that time is very important in any health situation. A quick response can mean life or death. Choose a hospital with a great track record and great customer service too.